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Reflective practice and the business English teacher

Business English teachers are a bit of an unusual species in the ELT jungle you might say. They don´t spend their time with four year olds singing songs about what they like to eat nor do they usually have to prepare teenagers for rigorous Cambridge exams, instead they teach adults, often in the companies where they work, and these adults are often stressed out, short on time and frequently on the move. This is often also true of your typical business teacher as well. We are under pressure to look as professional as the CEOs we might teach, deliver just in time and just right training, while making the lessons sufficiently “fun” that the students will actually want to continue having lessons with us. How should we then react to those who tell us that what we need is some reflective practice?

What should we understand by reflective practice? What can it mean to us? Is it a stealthy foe or a welcome ally? For me the most helpful definition is Clarke´s interpretation of reflection as a “process of internal dialogue.” It has to start from within us, but can manifest itself through external, physical artefacts such as a teaching journal, lesson report or action research project. Without thinking about what choices you have made within your teaching practice and why and considering what the outcomes of those choices are, there can be no teaching journal entry or lesson report. Or, if there is, it won´t actually help you to develop as a teacher. We may be busy and under pressure, but this internal dialogue is something that we always have with us, which we can always tap into  and which can have a positive effect on our teaching practice. Here are three simple ways in which we business English teachers can also benefit from reflective practice:

  • When you´re setting an activity or giving students instructions, explain to them why you´re asking them to do what you´re asking them to do or, where appropriate, why you´re asking them to do it in the way you´re asking them to do it. This will make you think about the reasons for your choices and the methods you use and if you feel that the arguments for these choices are flawed, meaningless or perhaps even non-existent, you will know that you need to make changes to the types of activities you do and how you execute them. Conversely, if you can find excellent, convincing explanations for your actions in the classroom, this should be a sign of encouragement and a spur to develop further in this direction — can you do it even better?
  • Compare the way you handled a specific situation in the classroom with the way you handled it on a previous occasion of occasions and compare. If you didn´t handle it as well as you did on previous occasions or better, reflect on the reasons for that. Were you just having a bad day or did you just not set up the activity as well as you could have done?
  • Get input on your performance from your learners by stopping the lesson at certain points and asking the learners to evaluate your teaching from the start of the lesson up until that point or from when you last stopped the lesson up until that point. You can then give the students criteria that they should use to evaluate your performance, e.g. how clear your instructions are, how teacher-centred or  student-centred the lesson is.

The important thing to remember is that doing something, however small, is more helpful than doing nothing. No matter how busy you are, you can always tune into your inner dialogue and you´re likely to see the benefits of doing that right away.



Clarke 2003 in Killeavy and Moloney 2010:1071

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Games to try with technical English learners

This post accompanies a workshop I did as part of the IATET Technical English programme in the Pre-Conference Seminar of the 4th International ESP Conference, 4th & 5th October 2013 in Ulm, Germany.

Here are five good reasons for using games with technical English learners:

Five good reasons to use games in technical English courses:

1. They can help learners to actively recycle and consolidate vocabulary they have learned

2. They can give learners the chance to practise communicating under pressure.

3. They allow learners to experience language in a new way.

4. They can inject new energy into the lesson and change the pace.

5. They can give learners the opportunity to solve problems and puzzles.

This is the game we played at the start of the session:

What have we changed?

– At least one of the learners leave the room.

– The remaining learners make 5 changes to the room where the lesson is taking place, e.g. moving a plant, opening a window, writing something on the flipchart or whiteboard.

– When the learner or learners return they have to find out what changes the others have made through their observational skills and also by asking questions using either past simple or present perfect question forms, e.g. Have you opened the window? Was that word on the board before I left the room?

– The other learners answer these questions, also using the correct verb form, until all the changes have been found.


Here are some other games you can try:

1. Active vocabulary consolidation

a. Matching words with pictures

– Take some pictures and some words and ask learners to match them

matching words & pictures

b. Making connections between words

– Take some vocabulary items you´ve been working with or ask each learner in the group to suggest one word, put all the words up on the board/ flipchart and ask learners to suggest possible links between them. They can suggest any links they like as long as they can give a good explanation for why the words are connected. The aim is to make as many connections as possible. You could also ask learners to draw pictures representing a word next to the word itself as a memory aid and encourage them to be as creative as possible. One of my learners, for example, once drew a picture of a mountain with a letter A on its peak to represent the word ________?

c. Taboo/ back to the board game

– Often taking games you might play in other contexts, e.g. at a party, and using them in the technical English classroom can be effective. Taboo, therefore, often seems to be a popular option. You can give learners cards with target vocabulary on and ask them to describe to the rest of the group without using the word on the card or any other forms of it (e.g. the noun, verb, adjective or adverb forms). The rest of the group has to guess as quickly as possible what the word is. Alternatively, one learner sits with his back to the board or flipchart, another learner writes a word there and the rest of the group has to explain and describe the meaning of the word so that the person sitting in front of the flipchart or board can guess it.

2. Communication under pressure

a. Just a minute

Learners tend to enjoy the game “just a minute” where the aim is to talk about a given topic for one minute without hesitating, going off-topic or repeating yourself. If other members of the group notice that the speaker is doing any of these things, they´re allowed to “buzz in” and point it out, at which time the speaker has to stop talking and the person who “buzzed in” can take over and talk about the same topic for the remainder of the minute. Whoever is talking when the minute is over gets the point(s) for that word. It´s easy to adapt this game for technical English learners by using technical English words/ concepts. Any good examples of words/ concepts you could use here?

b. Call my bluff

The basic principle of call my bluff is finding which of three definitions for something you´ve never heard of is true, the other being made-up or “bluffs.” You are, therefore, under pressure to successfully and convincingly present something which is not true as fact. For the technical English classroom, you could take little-known technical words, give learners the actual definition of it and then ask them to create two other possible explanations for the terms. The other team/ other learner then has to figure out which definition is the actual definition and which two are bluffs.

call my bluff

Tech Talk Intermediate, Vicki Hollett (OUP)    

3. Experiencing language in a new way

One of the advantages of games is that they can also give learners a break from text-based resources and allow them to interact with other learning stimuli.

a. What is it?

safety profiles

Get your hands on a “thing” whose function is not immediately obvious, e.g. these anti-pinch sensors used as safety features in the automotive industry, and ask the learners to ask you or another learner, who knows what the “thing” is, questions to try to find out what it is. Alternatively, you could blindfold a learner and give him/her something to hold which are they are familiar with. Again, they have to ask the rest of the group questions to find out what it is as well as relying on their sense of touch.

4. New energy

Learning technical English is not always easy! Injecting some more energy into the class certainly isn´t a bad thing and getting the learners up out of their seats and moving around can be great. One way you could do this is with the technical English mimes game. Learners are given/ can choose an activity and have to mime it. The learners first have to understand what the activity involves and then find a way of presenting it so that the concept will be clear to the rest of the group, who, in turn, have to activate their passive vocabulary in order to find the right words to describe the activity. A language point here would also be the present continuous and using it to describe activities as they are happening.

Choose one of the activities below and mime it until your partner guesses it

– A pipe is leaking

– The knife is blunt

– The bulb has blown

– The remote control´s batteries are dead

– You are tightening some screws

– You are driving a fork lift truck

– You are drilling a hole

5. Lateral thinking

If you´re taking part in a technical English course, there´s a very high chance that you´re working in a technical field or, at least, you´d like to when you finish your studies. People in technical fields tend to enjoy logic puzzles and lateral thinking and that´s why this game tends to work quite well. Give them a situation and ask them to consider what the possible explanation for this seemingly impossible situation could be. When I´ve used this game with learners, they´ve also been keen to create their own lateral thinking puzzles and I´ve been happy for them to do that as a follow-up activity.

Here is a list of possible situations you could use which I´ve taken from the OneStopEnglish website: You´ll notice that they´ve put in the activities for teenagers section of OneStopEnglish, but they also work well with adults. 

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A Grammar Review Lesson: Focussing on the “Big Four”

I regularly talk to my business English learners about where we´re going with our course: what would you like less of or more of? What have we done that you enjoyed and found helpful? What haven´t we done yet which you would find helpful? In these conversations there´s one topic which probably comes up more often than any other and it´s not email writing, telephoning or any of the other typical staples of the business English diet, but grammar and specifically: can we look at all of the tenses again?

Grammar: it´s not always a piece of cake

Grammar: it´s not always a piece of cake

I´ve been through various phases of dealing with the “can we look at all the tenses again?” request. At the beginning I don´t think I made a particularly good job  of it. The key to getting it right seems to lie in:

  • Striking a balance between pure grammar rules and language use.
  • Making sure that the learners have actually understood the input you´ve given them and they could actually use it themselves.
  • Distilling the grammar rules down to the most important points and the ones which will actually help them.
  • Raising learners´awareness of the mistakes they make and/or are most often made when using the tenses.

Before you even get to thinking about those things though, you need to consider which tenses you´re actually going to teach: All of them? Some of them? One of them? After reading that 80% of spoken communication in English among native speakers makes use of just four tenses–present simple, present continuous (or progressive), past simple and present perfect–I decided to focus my attention on these four, which I´ve come to call “the big four”. We could argue about how non-native speaker language use differs from native speaker language use, but I nevertheless see these four as excellent building blocks for English grammar. In the workplace you will definitely need the present simple to talk about facts, routines and permanent situations. You will also need the present continuous to talk abou temporary situations and tell people what you´re doing at the moment. You have to use the past simple to tell people about what you did yesterday, last week or last year. The present perfect is often used to let colleagues know what you have already done and what you haven´t done yet and while making small talk about where you´ve been and where you´ve worked.

Choosing the wrong tense may result in it being unclear whether you´ve done something or are still doing it and this can lead to complications in the workplace.  If you say: “I´m working here for 3 months” when you should have said: “I´ve worked/ I´ve been working here for 3 months”, the colleague visiting you will not expect to see you again on his next trip and may well not prioritise building a relationship with you, as a result.

The tenses review lesson that I´ve developed would be most effective with learners at B1 or B2 level who already have some knowledge of these four tenses and how to use them, but are in need of a refresher lesson or review. I´ve deliberately decided not to focus on the future explicitly here, but I have mentioned the use of the present simple to talk about timetabled events in the future and I have often found that this lesson has led learners to ask questions about the future, such as what about using the present continuous to talk about future plans and arrangements. I would see a lesson reviewing how to talk about the future as being a natural follow-on from this lesson–I don´t want to try to do it all in 60 or 90 minutes.

1) Tell the learners that native speakers use four tenses in 80% of spoken English. Ask them to guess which four tenses these four could be. This will give you an indication of their level of awareness of grammar terminology and the ideas or concepts behind the different tenses. Accept their guesses if they don´t know the name of the tenses but they know what the idea(s) behind them is, for example, if they say: “One of them is the tense for things that happened in the past and are finished.” You could also ask them if it surprises them that these four tenses are used so frequently and why or why not.

2) Tell the learners that you´re going to give them some information about all four tenses and you would like them to read it and use the information there and their own knowledge to find answers to the three questions below and then present these answers to the rest of the group:

  1. What situations do you use this tense to describe?
  2. What are the three most important things to remember about this tense?
  3. What mistakes to English learners often make when using this tense?

You may want to reformulate these questions using simpler language with lower level learners.

You can download my overview of “the big four” here.

Remind the learners that you will not accept them just reading aloud from the tenses overview when they present their answers–they have to present the information in their own words and add their own ideas too.

Depending on the number in the group, you may need to have a small group, a pair or just one individual working on one tense. If you have to have a combination of pairs and individuals, I would suggest giving the tenses which are a little easier to explain, e.g. present simple and past simple, to the individuals or the weaker learners, and those which are a little more challenging, e.g. present continuous and present perfect, to the pairs or stronger learners.

3) Monitor the learners as they´re working on their answers, giving them any support that they need and making suggestions. The area where the learners will probably need the most support is thinking about typical mistakes made when using the tense. The amount of time the learners will need to prepare their answers will range from 10 minutes to 30 minutes depending on the group.

4) When all the groups are finished, ask them to present their answers. Encourage the other learners to ask questions to those who are presenting and add any points which you consider important and any typical mistakes you know which they haven´t mentioned.

5) After this review of the four tenses, I go on to do a speaking activity in which the learners have to use the four tenses and their question forms. This is a variant on the popular “find someone who” activity.

a) I write on the board or flipchart: Find someone who… and then ask them to complete this sentence four ways using a different one of the four tenses each time. I give them examples to get them started:

Find someone who…lives in Heidenheim

Find someone who…is working to a deadline at the moment

Find someone who…went to a Christmas market last weekend

Find someone who…has been to Berlin/ has seen the new James Bond film

Remind them that they should write sentences that they think or know will be applicable to at least one other person in the group, so “find someone who has been to the moon”, for example, is not allowed, for example!

b) When they have their four sentences, they can use them to create questions they will then ask the rest of the group. Review the different question forms you use for the four different tenses.

present simple: Do you live in Heidenheim?

present continuous: Are you working to a deadline at the moment?

past simple: Did you go to a Christmas market last weekend?

present perfect: Have you been to Berlin? Have you seen the new James Bond film?

c) The learners can then stand up and mingle with each other and ask their questions. Tell them their aim is to find a person who can answer “yes” for each of the four questions and when they have done this they have completed the task. It´s OK if they find one person who can answer “yes” to more than one of the questions.

At the end of 60 or 90 minutes, the learners have:

  • been re-familiarised with the important features of each tense
  • been reminded of the common mistakes people make when using them
  • been able to focus on one tense in more detail and explain how it works to the rest of the group
  • been re-familiarised with the question forms for each of the four tenses
  • had the opportunity to produce the language by creating their own examples and questions in the “find someone who” game


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How much time do you spend online? An independent study activity for my trainees

Here´s an activity I created today for a group of 19-20 year old trainees I teach in a logistics company. I won´t be able to teach them this Friday as I´ll be at the IATEFL BESIG Annual Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, so I wanted to give them something to do to keep them occupied and keep up their contact with English while I was away. This is a very mixed group with learners from high B1 to low C1, but each of them can communicate according to their own abilities while completing this task.

Here are your instructions for this week´s English task:
1. Please complete it by Friday, 23rd November
2 You can do all (or nearly all) of it online
3. Look as this infographic (an infographic is information presented in the form of a graphic) about how people spend their time online:
4. Make a note of: a) one thing in the infographic that you didn´t already know
                                      b) one thing in the infographic that you find surprising
                                      c) one thing in the infographic that you find interesting
5. Think about how you spend your time online and either:
                            a) write a 300 word report–you can either email this to me or bring a paper copy of it to the lesson
OR                     b) give a 2 minute presentation  about it in the next lesson
6. Points you could include in the report or presentation are:
a) How much time do you spend online in an average week?
b) How do you usually go online: on a computer, using your phone or using another device?
c) What percentage of your time do you spend on the following activities: social networking, online shopping, searches, multi-media websites, communication (including email), reading content?
d) Do you think you spend too much of your time online: if so do you plan to change your habits? If so, do you have any tips for those who spend too much time online–how can they reduce the amount of time they spend online?
e) How do you think people will spend their time online in the future? Do you think it will change, and, if so, how do you think it will change?
Please let me know if you have any questions about my instructions or if anything is unclear. I´ll be away at the conference tomorrow and Friday, but I´ll still be able to check my email. Looking forward to some interesting presentations and reports next week. If you choose to write a report please either: email it to me or bring the paper copy of it to the lesson. If you choose to do a presentation, you can do the presentation in the lesson next week or the week after next if you can not come to the lesson next week.

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Here´s what I did on holiday

We are now well and truly into the holiday season and many of our in-company English course participants have recently been on holiday or will soon be leaving for one. I often find myself making conversation with my learners about their holidays:

  • Learners enjoy talking about holidays
  • It gives them the chance to practise using the past simple and the past continuous
  • It can help them build up their small talk skills
  • Reporting back on something you´ve done is also a good skill to have in the business world
It seemed though, that our conversations about holidays have sometimes lacked some direction and have sometimes descended into generic and not particularly interesting descriptions about camping trips in Italy. I wanted to try and liven up these discussions and also  bring a little bit of the English speaking world to the meeting rooms in Southern Germany where my courses take place, so I decided to do this activity with one of my groups.
I visited Glasgow in April this year and when I got home I found that I had lots of bits and pieces lurking in the bottom of my bag which were reminders of the trip.  All of them had English text on them in some shape or form. I took a selection of these items (see below) into class with me. They included:
  • My Easyjet boarding pass for the flight from Munich to Edinburgh
  • A tourist map
  • A fridge magnet I bought in a kilt shop
  • A receipt from the Marks & Spencer´s store at Edinburgh train station where I´d bought a sandwich and a fruit salad
  • A floor plan for the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum in Glasgow

The learners in this high B1/ low B2 group didn´t know that I´d be away on a short trip the week before , so I gave each participant a different “holiday artefact” and gave them four questions to answer about it:

1. What is it?

2. Where did I get it?

3. Why did I get it?

4. Should I keep it or throw it away?

It was great to see the learners exploring the things I´d given them: turning them over, examining them from all angles, looking closely to get a better look at the text and speculating aloud in English about why I´d bought something or where I could have got it from. After 10 minutes or so they were ready to share the results of their deliberations. Most of the time they´re guesses were accurate, but I filled them in with some more details and we went through any unfamiliar vocabulary.  Some of the topics we discussed  at this stage included:

  • Would you visit the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum if you were in Glasgow? Why/Why not?
  • Do you collect anything from your holidays? I collect fridge magnets.
  • Do you use a paper map when you visit a new place, or do you use your intuition or your smartphone instead?
  • What´s your opinion of low-cost airlines like Easyjet? Do you use them?
  • Would you like to visit Scotland? Would you try haggis, if you did?

When everyone had responded, I asked all five learners to get together and decide what I had done on my trip: playing holiday detectives, so to speak.

During this lesson, the learners had been alert, full of enthusiasm and very engaged with the language they were getting and with the business of communicating it to everyone else. At the end of the lesson I suggested that we could repeat this activity if any members of the group go on holiday and could bring some things they´d collected on their holiday, preferably which incorporated English texts, into the lesson. Two weeks later, one of the participants returned from a short trip to Venice and brought a wide range of leaflets, mementos, maps and other bits and pieces back for us to look at, not only this but she also created a PowerPoint presentation with photos from her trip, which she presented to us. She also gave me a Venice fridge magnet as a gift, after I´d explained that the reason I´d bought the fridge magnet in Glasgow was because I try to always collect a fridge magnet whenever I visit a new place. This also became an excellent lesson and collecting things from trips and holidays and bringing them into the English lesson to talk about has now become a tradition in the course.


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Creating communicative activities for technical English learners

On Wednesday, 27th June 2012 I presented a webinar on behalf of IATET (The International Association of Technical English Trainers), the aim of which was to provide teachers with a 5-step plan for creating effective communicative activities for technical English learners. The focus here was, of course, on technical English learners but the same approach could equally be used with business English learners more generally.

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Authentic learning materials: Creating them for in-company learners

On Saturday, 16th June 2012 I gave a workshop at the IATEFL BESIG Summer Symposium in Paris: the title of which was, Authentic Learning Materials: Creating them for in-company learners. My aim was to look at how we can overcome some of the challenges of using authentic materials (some of which I outlined in a previous post on this blog, Authentic materials: A SWOT analysis) by learning how to effectively select authentic materials and make use of their potential for relevant and engaging learning moments in the training room. I decided to focus, specifically on text-based authentic materials. Although I also use other types of authentic materials in my courses: video and audio materials, realia and other items from the learners´ workplaces, in 45 minutes, there is only so much you can talk about! Here is an overview of the workshop. Thanks to everyone who attended for your participation, your input and your questions.

What are authentic materials? Well, authentic materials in this context could be any materials you can obtain which have not been designed for the purposes of learning English, but which could be adapted for that purpose. In this workshop, I focussed specifically on text-based resources and mainly on what I would term “internal resources,” by which I mean resources that the learner has obtained and then passed on to and/or resources originating from the company or industry in which the learner works. Here are some examples I´ve compiled:

The general consensus today seems to be that using authentic materials in business English and ESP courses is a good idea, but the fact remains that authentic materials pose a number of challenges for English teachers who want to use them in their courses. Which materials should they use and where can they find them? How can they tailor them to fulfil learners´ needs? How can they really get the most out of these materials? I decided to focus on the two main challenges teachers face when they want to integrate authentic materials into their courses: selecting and using the materials.

Would you use this? I showed the audience some examples of authentic materials and asked them to consider whether or not they would use them with their learners. The first document I showed the participants was an article on strategic corporate management which two of my learners gave me (see below). They are attending a summer school for branch managers from their company from all over Europe this year and have to read a number of articles as preparation for the course: this article is one of them. I did read through the text with the learners and help them to understand it because I knew that was important to them, but I would never use this material of my own accord. The language is unnecessarily complex and its level is much too high for these low B2 level learners. This topic is definitely interesting for the participants, but I could have presented it in a more accessible way for them.

The second text is an article from the BBC that looks at how the British greet each other and it´s called, The Pecking Order. I would see this as being an inappropriate authentic material to use with my in-company learners: some learners may find the topic an inappropriate one, the language would be too challenging (and also not useful) for most learners and there are a lot of unfamiliar and potentially confusing words, the content is also not really that interesting or relevant, especially for learners who don´t have any contact with the UK and British English. There is also the issue of copyright to consider and how you could legally copy and distribute a text of this kind from a website. Laws vary from country to country, but they´re generally becoming stricter.  Personally, I wouldn´t use this text in its entirety in my courses, but I have used it as the basis for discussion on how you greet people you´ve just met, how you greet your work colleagues and how this can vary between different cultures. As a warmer for this discussion, I reproduced the graph on the top right-hand side which shows the results of a poll asking people in Britain how they would greet a colleague of the opposite sex if they saw them outside of work. I reproduced the poll as four bars without any labels, only the percentages, and then asked the learners to speculate about which greetings received which percentages of the vote, or in other words which greetings occurred the most frequently. This worked really well and, needless to say, the actual results surprised my German learners, who have quite a different attitude to greetings. Using the topic of or an idea from authentic materials as a springboard to the rest of the lesson, can be very effective. It ensures that there won´t be a mismatch between the language level of the text and the learners´ language level, and it can also result in the learners being more active in the lesson.

The last of the three was a slide from a presentation that a colleague of one of my participants gave in a company that produces scaffolding and formwork (see above). Although, PowerPoints can be quite a static resource to use, I would nonetheless see some value in using this material since there is a close connection between the content of the material and the learners´ work, it was written by someone who works at their company and looks at issues all of them have to deal with in their daily business. The more specialised the industry where your learners are working, the greater the need to use authentic materials produced within that industry. You could create an activity by removing the words in the labels on the high-rise building and ask the learners to write them in the right place and you could get them into a discussion on what the internal and external parameters that you have to consider when constructing a high-rise building are.

I have compiled four tips for selecting authentic materials which I included in the next slide.

Next we looked at four different example activities which make use of authentic materials:

1. Creating reading puzzles: here you can see how I have modified a text about one of the construction projects that one company I teach at is currently working on by removing some words, or leaving only the first letter of the word.  The learners were already familiar with the text and the vocabulary it contains beforehand, so this activity served as a revision activity to reactivate this vocabulary. I also highlighted some chunks I found interesting and asked them to explain what was meant by them. You could also ask the learners to identify chunks they find interesting and then explain what is meant by them or what they mean to them. This can then lead on to more extensive discussion of the topic.

2. The next document I showed was an insurance quote one of my learners received. He is the CFO of the American subsidiary of his company as well as the German head office, so he receives a lot of financial documents in English. I encouraged the learner to devise a communicative task based around some of the materials he had and he suggested a telephoning role-play in which I would call him to ask him questions about anything in the quote which was unclear for me and he would respond to my questions. This made for a very successful role-play.
3. I then showed an activity I used to practise forming accurate questions for a group of learners in a construction company who were having difficulties with this (see below). I divided the learners into two groups, one group had a photo of a project the company was working on at the moment and the other group had a text about the project which I had adapted from the company website. The group who had the picture weren´t give any information about the project other than what it looks like and had to write six questions to ask the other group to find out more information about it. The other group then had to respond to their questions and then they changed over roles. I asked the learners to give the answer if it was included in the text or to speculate on what it would be based on the knowledge they have, if it wasn´t there. We often get so excited about using authentic materials that our learning aims and the learning outcomes we want to achieve go out of the window, so I wanted to make the point that this doesn´t have to be the case: keep the learning aims in mind, look at the materials you have available, and look for possible areas of overlap between the two.
4.  I brought this part of the workshop to a close by looking at a graph about energy use in Germany, which I was given by some participants in a German energy company. The activity idea here it to use the interpreting of authentic graphs and charts as a consolidation exercise after doing some work on language for describing graphs and trends. The one criticism I made of this particular resource is that it might appear out-dated because it only provides information on energy use up to 2008. One of the great advantages of authentic materials is that, if chosen carefully, they tend to be relevant for learners, choosing up-to-date resources will help to make them even more relevant.

At the end of the workshop, I wanted to leave the participants with some guiding principles for selecting and using authentic materials:


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